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Research Page

Page history last edited by PBworks 13 years, 4 months ago

 

 

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 In a world with increasing usage of the Internet, people with similar circumstances (Katelyn Mckenna and John Bargh; 1997) as well as people with different statuses (Rob Kling; 1996) can come together online. This online ‘coming together’, prompts, social psychology professor, Adam Joinson (1999) to explore how, “behaviour on the Internet differs from similar behaviour in the real world”. According to anthropologist professor, David Jacobson (1988), in the real world, individuals have the need to feel connected to others, and to have a sense of group belonging. However, online, individuals demonstrate higher private self-awareness and lower public self-awareness (Joinson, 1998a; Kicsler et al., 1984. Matheson and Zanna 1988). As a result, this awareness disconnects online users from the public, and users are not as concerned with the public’s opinion. Moreover, Philosophy professor Adam Ben-Ze’ev (2003) argues the Internet is a form of non-intrusive communication. Face-to-face, family and friends can interrupt our daily lives and privacy at will. However, online, the people you associate with tend to be more patient and less likely to intrude. With reduced social presence, Joinson concludes individuals online have higher self-esteem, as well as lower anxiety levels. Ben-Ze’ev (2003) attributes an increased openness over the Internet to Johnson’s conclusions of higher self worth.

             Increased online openness encourages colleagues of Joinson, Psychology professors Katelyn Mckenna and John Bargh (1997), to conduct a study, which focuses on the world of newsgroups (these are online groups covering general as well as quite specific interests, among them topics that an individual would likely find embarrassing to reveal to others in real life). Katelyn Mckenna and John Bargh expose that through anonymity in these virtual groups, people are more comfortable and “feel less isolated and different, disclosing a long secret part of oneself, share one's own experiences and learn from those of others, and gain emotional and motivational support”, and achieve a better sense of ones-self. Furthermore, Mckenna and Bargh found that people who did find a new sense of identity “moved so dramatically to inform others in their life about this new identity” (for example, a ‘closeted’ gay man would come out to his family after being reassured over the Internet). In addition to a growth in virtual groups, other online activities that bring people with similar interests together have also risen (Mark Griffiths, 2003). An example is online gambling. Governments around the world have committed to deregulation, or “the freedom to gamble”, and technology can be seen to have helped make deregulation easier to achieve. According to psychologist Griffiths, there has been an increase in online gambling because players find it convenient to privately engage in online gambling without the “fear” or “stigma” that comes with gambling in reality. This sense of anonymity also makes online gambling more appealing because users feel that they have more control (i.e. others cannot see their facial expressions).

Through the Internet, people anonymously come together to form online communities and socialize freely (Katelyn Mckenna and John Bargh). This atmosphere motivates senior, Information Science and Information System, lecturer Rob Kling (1996), whom specializes in artificial intelligence to research social relationships between people who differ from each other (i.e. Ethnicity or social class) and how they connect through online networks. Kling found the Internet “reduces the barriers to communication between people at different levels of hierarchy in an organization, and facilitates the formation of more flexible work groups.” (Sproull and Kiesler, 1991a). Hence, online communications limit the social status attitude and bring equality among people in the workplace, and build towards a closer relationship between employees and employers. However, Susan Herring (1992), a feminist, information science professor complains the topic of gender still raises a negative issue where “pre-existing patterns of male dominance” still exists in a workplace and females participates less in online work group discussions. Showing that even though people can make use of the "hidden identity," there are still problems related to the gender relations. Assistant professor of educational psychology and African American Studies, Tynes Brendesha (1993) argues interpretation of racial differences is also greatly influenced by the use of the Internet. Tynes conducted a study of whether or not teens react the same or differently regarding ‘race’ under an anonymous situation and when an authoritative figure is present. Although, Tynes found there are “equal amounts of positive and neutral language [displayed about] the issues of race in both monitored and unmonitored teen chat rooms, suggesting ‘net generation’ appear to be more inclusive [of other race].” (Burkhalter, 1999; Nakamura, 2002; Kang, 2000; Glaser et al., 2002). However, Tynes complains racial attitudes do still exist in anonymous chat rooms, especially in the unmonitored online chats. Nevertheless, this is “a time where diversity is valued and [discussion of race] as a common topic, can help reduce prejudice feelings” (Burnette, 1997).

While these researchers validly explain online behaviours regarding remaining anonymous, perhaps, if their studies were to be re-examined, one could keep in mind the possibility of an individual creating a fake identity. With this addition, one could ask: what dangers are linked with remaining anonymous online?

 

Powerpoint Presentation

 

Outline:

 

Intro-sheila (people experiencing the same situation and getting support)(1)

-real world vs. virtual world (i.e. Judgment regarding appearance)

-newsgroup and acceptance (real life situation)

-gambling

 

 

Body-Esther (barriers being broken, different people feeling equal )(2)

 

-in Work environment, as well as ethnicity issues 

 

 

Conclusion-Lee (refer to (1)+(2), no matter what the situation, internet makes people more open about their live and willing to share through remaining “anonymous”)

-anonymity+online

-self consciousness

-privacy+openness

 

Sheila-raise question that there maybe internet predators/ fake identities online, an area need to be explored

 

Open discussions

 

End

 

 

 

English Presentation Powerpoint

 

 


 

Collaborative Notes for Gist: (main idea from each individual summary, see summary notes for gists for more details)

 

 

 

Privacy and Openness

-the ability to decide the info you want to give out, or present to the “public” through the power of anonymity

-people feel less vulnerable because they feel others are less intrusive online

-people are more open with things they would keep to themselves otherwise, (pride)

 

Gambling

-gambling online has increased, anonymity makes players feel more comfortable and fair

 

Anonymity and Online

-less anxious and more self-esteem

 

Newsgroup and Acceptance

-information about oneself that one feels embarrse sharing can be revealed online anonymous with others that share the same situation and support eachother

-resulting in wanting to share this new online identity with family and friends, that you might have once hesitated to tell

 

 

Social relationships

work

-         the internet breaks social classes, equal behind the screen

- internet tries to make the sexes equal, however males are still dominant

 

ethnicity

-         teens are not as racist under supervision

-         authority figure puts a social norm into chatrooms

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Orchestrated Summary:

 

       In a world with increasing usage of the Internet, people with similar circumstances (Katelyn Mckenna and John Bargh; 1997) as well as people with different statuses (Rob Kling; 1996) can come together online. This online ‘coming together’, prompts, social psychology professor, Adam Joinson (1999) to explore how, “behaviour on the Internet differs from similar behaviour in the real world”. According to anthropologist professor, David Jacobson (1988), in the real world, individuals have the need to feel connected to others, and to have a sense of group belonging. However, online, individuals demonstrate higher private self-awareness and lower public self-awareness (Joinson, 1998a; Kicsler et al., 1984. Matheson and Zanna 1988). As a result, this awareness disconnects online users from the public, and users are not as concerned with the public’s opinion. Moreover, Philosophy professor Adam Ben-Ze’ev (2003) argues the Internet is a form of non-intrusive communication. Face-to-face, family and friends can interrupt our daily lives and privacy at will. However, online, the people you associate with tend to be more patient and less likely to intrude. With reduced social presence, Joinson concludes individuals online have higher self-esteem, as well as lower anxiety levels. Ben-Ze’ev (2003) attributes an increased openness over the Internet to Johnson’s conclusions of higher self worth.

             Increased online openness encourages colleagues of Joinson, Psychology professors Katelyn Mckenna and John Bargh (1997), to conduct a study, which focuses on the world of newsgroups (these are online groups covering general as well as quite specific interests, among them topics that an individual would likely find embarrassing to reveal to others in real life). Katelyn Mckenna and John Bargh expose that through anonymity in these virtual groups, people are more comfortable and “feel less isolated and different, disclosing a long secret part of oneself, share one's own experiences and learn from those of others, and gain emotional and motivational support”, and achieve a better sense of ones-self. Furthermore, Mckenna and Bargh found that people who did find a new sense of identity “moved so dramatically to inform others in their life about this new identity” (for example, a ‘closeted’ gay man would come out to his family after being reassured over the Internet). In addition to a growth in virtual groups, other online activities that bring people with similar interests together have also risen (Mark Griffiths, 2003). An example is online gambling. Governments around the world have committed to deregulation, or “the freedom to gamble”, and technology can be seen to have helped make deregulation easier to achieve. According to psychologist Griffiths, there has been an increase in online gambling because players find it convenient to privately engage in online gambling without the “fear” or “stigma” that comes with gambling in reality. This sense of anonymity also makes online gambling more appealing because users feel that they have more control (i.e. others cannot see their facial expressions).

Through the Internet, people anonymously come together to form online communities and socialize freely (Katelyn Mckenna and John Bargh). This atmosphere motivates senior, Information Science and Information System, lecturer Rob Kling (1996), whom specializes in artificial intelligence to research social relationships between people who differ from each other (i.e. Ethnicity or social class) and how they connect through online networks. Kling found the Internet “reduces the barriers to communication between people at different levels of hierarchy in an organization, and facilitates the formation of more flexible work groups.” (Sproull and Kiesler, 1991a). Hence, online communications limit the social status attitude and bring equality among people in the workplace, and build towards a closer relationship between employees and employers. However, Susan Herring (1992), a feminist, information science professor complains the topic of gender still raises a negative issue where “pre-existing patterns of male dominance” still exists in a workplace and females participates less in online work group discussions. Showing that even though people can make use of the "hidden identity," there are still problems related to the gender relations. Assistant professor of educational psychology and African American Studies, Tynes Brendesha (1993) argues interpretation of racial differences is also greatly influenced by the use of the Internet. Tynes conducted a study of whether or not teens react the same or differently regarding ‘race’ under an anonymous situation and when an authoritative figure is present. Although, Tynes found there are “equal amounts of positive and neutral language [displayed about] the issues of race in both monitored and unmonitored teen chat rooms, suggesting ‘net generation’ appear to be more inclusive [of other race].” (Burkhalter, 1999; Nakamura, 2002; Kang, 2000; Glaser et al., 2002). However, Tynes complains racial attitudes do still exist in anonymous chat rooms, especially in the unmonitored online chats. Nevertheless, this is “a time where diversity is valued and [discussion of race] as a common topic, can help reduce prejudice feelings” (Burnette, 1997).

While these researchers validly explain online behaviours regarding remaining anonymous, perhaps, if their studies were to be re-examined, one could keep in mind the possibility of an individual creating a fake identity. With this addition, one could ask: what dangers are linked with remaining anonymous online?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Individual Summaries [6 in total] 

 

 

 

 Lee's Summary #1

 

 Notes for Gist:

 

- private is what is confined to you, in comparison to personal, a person's personal affairs

- over the internet, personal matters which remain private offline becomes public online because the need to guard privacy is less pronounced despite the protection that anonymity provides

- privacy is important because it facilitates association with with people (Ferdinand Schoeman)

- online there is a greater ability to conceal information and decreased vulnerability of participants.

- people do not feel as vulnerable online when making relationships. Online users have this imaginary freedom to do and say whatever they want over the internet.

- there are information that people can share online but not offline, and likewise

- this is because of non-intrusive communication online. in reality, family and friends can interrupt in your daily live and privacy, however people you associate with online are non-intrusive and more patient

there is also an increased openness over the internet through net-cams where people share everything in their everyday activities, even private ones such as going to the washroom.

- Joshua Meyrowitz believes that "our age is fascinated by exposure. indeed the act of exposure itself now seems to excite us more than the content of secrets exposed" (cited in Sykes, 1999:188).

- voluntary acts of exposure is not longer shameful but a matter of pride (Schneider, cited in Ben-Ze'ev 2003).

 

Emotional Closness and Openness Online

 

   Ben-Ze'ev (2003) argues that conflicts of privacy is considerably weaker online. Privacy is something confined to you, in comparison to personal, which involves a person's personal affairs. Privacy is important because it facilitates assocation with people (Ferdinand Schoeman, cited in Ben-Ze'ev). Online users do not feel as vulnerable in relationships as they might feel in real life. This is because of non-intrusive communication. Face-to-face, family and friends can interrupt our daily lives and privacy, however people you associate with online are generally non-intrusive and patient. Therefore, over the internet, personal matters kept private offline becomes public online because the need to guard privacy is less pronounced, even though there is protection that anonymity provides; people use this protection to be open, with the ability to keep whatever they want private.

 

    There is also an increased openness over the internet through net-cams where people share everything in their everyday activities, even private activities such as going to the washroom. Joshua believes that "our age is fascinated by exposure. Indeed the act of exposure itself now seems to excite us more than the content of secrets exposed" (Sykes 1999, quoted in Ben-Ze'ev). These voluntary acts (emphasis mine) are no longer shameful but a matter of pride (Schneider, cited in Ben-Ze'ev 2003).

 

Works Cited:

Ben-Ze'ev, Adam. "Privacy, emotional closeness, and openness in cyberspace." Elsevier Science 0747-563216 06 2003 451-467. 21 03 2007 <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VDC-47VYJ0N-2&_user=1022551&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2003&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050484&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1022551&md5=5c924501c052bef398d382f6ca3d52b9>.

 

Privacy, emotional closeness, and openness in cyberspace.

 

 


 

 

Lee's Summary #2

 

Notes for Gists:  

 

 Anonymity and Gambling: Growth of Online Gambling

 

     In "Internet Gambling: Issues, Concerns, and Recommendations" Mark Griffith(2003) explains that technology has developed gambling practices. Governments around the world want to increase revenue; they use methods of marketing to increase revenue. As a result, gambling has grow globally in the last 10 years, one reason for this trend is the use of technology.

 

     Governments around the world have commited to deregulation, or the freedom to gamble, and technology can be seen to have helped make deregulation easier to achieve. It allows easy access to worldwide gambling; people can easily enter the world of gambling either at home or at work just by using the computer. Online gambling has a sense of anonymity: users can privately (emphasis mine) engage in online gambling without the fear or stigma that comes with gambling in reality. This sense of anonymity makes online gambling a great experience because users feel that they have more control over content and tone when users gamble. Anonymity also makes gambling more comforting because it is more difficult to detect feelings in other users' facial expressions than in face-to-face gambling. This can be positive compared to face-to-face to gambling because you do not have to experience another player's tantrum.

 

Works Cited:

Griffiths, Mark. "Internet gambling: Issues, concerns, and recommendations." US: Mary Ann Liebert Publishers 1094-931328 06 2004 13. 19 march 2007 

 

Internet Gambling

 

 

 


 

 

Sheila's Summary#1

 

Notes for Gists:

 

 

 
 
Anonymity helping with acceptance

 

      Katelyn Mckenna and John Bargh (1997) research the world of newsgroups (these are online groups

covering general as well as quite specific interests, among them topics that an individual would likely find embarrassing to reveal to others in real life), as well as identity. “An individual has the need to feel connected to others, to have a sense of group belonging, and to feel like a special, valued member of a group. Therefore, feeling different from the membership of a valued group (such as mainstream society) is problematic for the individual, in that certain aspects of identity may need to be hidden in order to achieve group acceptance and approval. Such conflicts between the public persona and the private self are the major cause of unhappiness and neuroses” (Brewer, 1991, p.2). With virtual groups such as newsgroups, Mckenna and Bargh reveal that through anonymity, people are more comfortable and “feel less isolated and different, disclosing a long secret part of oneself, sharing one's own experiences and learning from those of others, and gaining emotional and motivational support” (p.3). Gollwitzer, 1991 argues that by opening up about ones true self, this attributes to a new sense of identity, where people feel more secure with themselves in the real world. Furthermore, Mckenna and Bargh found that people who did find a new sense of identity “moved so dramatically to inform others in their life about this new identity” (for example, a ‘closeted’ gay man would come out to his family after being reassured over the Internet (p.7).

 

Work cited:

Katelyn Mckenna and John Bargh, Coming out in the age of the Internet: Identity 'demarginalization' through virtual group participation; 1997;

 

acceptance

 

 

 

 


 

Sheila's 2nd summary

 

Notes for Gist:

 

  • Behaviour on the Internet differs from similar behaviour in the ‘real world’ 
  • Lower anxiety, lower social desirability and higher self-esteem when using Internet anonymously
  • Anonymous Online users can be disinhibite
  •  Deindividuation because of reduced social presence and social cues
  • Lower self regulation
  • Encourages Self focus
  • Lower concern for other opinion = more honest answers
 

 

Anonymity and online behaviour

 

 

       Adam Johnson (1999) argue that behaviour on the Internet differs from similar behaviour in the ‘real world’. Johnson agrees “A key behavioural difference between online and real life behaviour is that users of computer networks can be characterized as disinhibited  (more willing to exchange hostilities, swap personal info, seek potentially threatening information, and publish normally protected aspects of themselves) (Joinson, 1998a; Kicsler et al., 1984. Matheson and Zanna (1988) attribute the disinhibited  online behaviour to higher private self-awareness and lower public self-awareness (page?).  Increased anonymity encourages people to be less concerned with others opinions. Adam Johnson (1999) focuses his research on this notion by conducting a questionnaire between anonymous and nonanonymous participants. The questionnaire measures self-consciousness, self-esteem, and self-desirability. As Johnson had predicted his results reveal that the anonymous participants show lower anxiety and lower social desirability and higher self-esteem in comparison to those who are not anonymous, which Johnson associates with deinviduation. Johnson argues this deindividuation is associated with reduced social presence and reduced social cues.


Work Cited:
Joinson, Adam ; Social desirability, anonymity, and Internet-based questionnaires; 1999

 

Internet Behaviour

 

 


 

Esther's Summary # 1

 

Notes for Gist:

 

-social relationships in electronic forums mirror many key aspects of face-to-face relationships

-blogs/chat rooms for random people to come together to socialize, can foster friendship/romance [communities anonymously] 

 -Internet networks destabilizes many conventional social categories

  -telecommuting and virtual offices enables people to work routinely while they are in their homes, and blurs these boundaries (work AND home separately)

  -examines people’s work and private lives, and communities of authors and readers are shifting their relationships with electronic journals and digital libraries

 

at WORK

- reduce the barriers to communication between people at different levels of hierarchy in an organization (Sproull and Kiesler, 1991a) and facilitate the formation of more flexible work groups (remain "anonymous" online, there is no "face" for the person to look at, rid of the social status attitude-emphasis mine)

  -compared computer-based communication VS face-to face discussion

            -experiments-computer based,people took longer to reach consensus, participated more equally, showed more willingness to arrive at conclusions, differ a lot from original proposals  

-display of "uninhibited verbal behavior" (flaming) 

-A recurring theme of electronically-enhanced group cohesion is typified by Heintz (1992, p 34), who claims that "the world of electronic science is smaller and more tightly knit."

 -brings more equality of staff in organizations-ie. lower staff can communicate/more accessibility to higher staff

           -democratize organizations by giving more visibility to people who are often out of sight or ignored by people in more central or powerful positions

 -foster a sense of community among geographically or organizationally isolated professionals such as special librarians (Ladner and Tillman, 1992) and oceanographers (Sproull and Kiesler, 1991a)

-Sproull and Kiesler, also examines distribution lists where people can communicate about hobbies (the cinema list) or just hang out (the rowdies list) which they found help people make connections and heightens the sense of social solidarity in organizations

-Kezsbom (1992), As the use of cross-functional, multi-disciplined project teams increases, the conflict that accompanies such team work will rise accordingly."

Men VS Female

male and female academic professionals do not participate equally, Rather, a small male minority dominates the discourse both in terms of amount of talk, and rhetorically, through self- promotional and adversarial strategies. (Susan Herring)

        -when women do attempt to participate on a more equal basis, they risk being actively censored by the reactions of men who either ignore them or attempt to delegitimize their contributions(Susan Herring)

-influence of computer, communication technology continues [the] pre-existing patterns of hier rchy and male dominance in academia, more generally, and in society as a whole. (Susan Herring)

-writing style can help reveal a person's gender

-Markus shows us that people who know each other at work can effectively communicate many emotional nuances through written e-mail messages

 

Personal

-internet for finding friends and lovers, pursuing hobbies, sca venging for investment tips, political organizing

-for people with restricted social lives, electronic systems may provide truly important avenues to expand their social circles

-trust issues-impersonating another person, abuse of remaining anonymous, manipulative and fraud, “identity rape”

-Julian Dibbell examines the ways that groups define their norms and forms of social control when some of their members are offended by some violation. Ie fantasy rape in cyber space

-changing for communites of scholars, fasten the process of research

-digitization of textual, audio and visual communications will encourage reorganizations of knowledge via hypertext(Richard lanham 1994)

-people communicating differently through electronic reading and writing as a lively alternative to the relatively static world of traditional printed books

 

 

 

 

Social relationships in Electronic Forums: Hangouts, Salons, Work Places and Communities

 

      The internet has impacted the world today immensely, in both workplace and personal live. With both surroundings, everyone interacts and is interconnected with other individuals. Rob Kling explores the connection between social relationship and electronic networks to understand the role electronic communication, specifically the internet, plays in the lives of various socially structured groups (co-workers, gender). Through the internet, people can anonymously come together to form online communities and socialize freely. Kling has found that internet enable people to combine work and personal live which heightens “sense of social solidarity,” (Sproull and Kiesler, 1991a) The internet has a positive effect for workplace because it “reduces the barriers to communication between people at different levels of hierarchy in an organization, and facilitate the formation of more flexible work groups.” (Sproull and Kiesler, 1991a) However, there seems to be a negative effect for gender relations such as that there is still the “pre-exisiting patterns of male dominance” (Susan Herring) in a workplace and females participates less in online work group discussions. Overall, whether or not digital communications displays both a positive and negative influence on social structure, it still significantly acts as an important tool in connecting individuals together.

 

 

Works Cited:

Kling, Rob. Computerization and Controversy: Value Conflicts and Social Choices (2nd Ed.) Part V, Article A, 1996. 

 

social relationship and internet

 

 


 

 

Esther's Summary # 2 

 

Notes for Gists:

 

 -scholars have argued that internet could bring about realization of an electronic global village where there would be no race, gender, or infirmities

-though visual signifiers of race maybe absent, it comes in linguistic/verbal form in online communication

-conducted survey and investigate youth culture on internet and importance of group identity and in-group/out-group relations during adolescence

-teens find it easier to develop friendships with in-group members than out-groups in real life face-to-face situation (Quintana 1998)

-negative racial attitudes presented in teen chat, but under adult monitoring eliminate their expression. (Greenfield, 2000) hence communication about racial issues takes on a different form when an authority figure is present

-research question: compare race-related discourse of adolescents in monitored and unmonitored contexts to see whether the monitor as authority figure succeeds in reducing negative racial language

-study found there are equal amounts of positive/neutral language surround issues of race in both monitored/unmonitored teen chat rooms, this suggest “net generation” can be more inclusive. Whereas in adult networks, it is often reported to be negative (Burkhalter, 1999; Nakamura, 2002; Kang, 2000; Glaser et al., 2002)

-race is salient and openly discussed, no existence of raceless online society but a time where diversity is valued and common topic of discussion since race reduce prejudice (Burnette, 1997)

-problematic racial attitudes still exist, much higher use of negative language within unmonitored VS monitored transcripts

-many adolescents still reared in racially segregated environments and don’t have enough opportunities to develop friendships with people from other racial groups, media and academic environments teaches them about various racial groups.

            -research shown that if they could develop cross-cultural friendships offline, this affect positively on their racial attitudes (Phinney, Ferguson, & Tate, 1997)

 

Conclusion

-presence of monitor exerts social controls on racial language and changes quality of interactions

-negative racial attitudes often surface in absence of perceived social control

 

 

Adolescence, race, and ethnicity on the Internet: A comparison of discourse in monitored vs. unmonitored chat rooms

 

     During adolescent years, group identity is a crucial aspect of their lives and friendship is highly correlated with ethnicity and racial differences. Face-to-face, teens “find it easier to develop friendships with in-group member than out-groups.” (Quintana, 1998) Tynes questions whether or not in online chat rooms, teens reacted the same or differently about race under an anonymous situation and when an authoritative figure is presented, would this change the outcome of the research. In earlier studies, adult monitoring seem to effectively remove negative racial attitudes in teen chats. (Greenfield, 2000) However, in Tynes’ research, he found there are “equal amounts of positive and neutral language [displayed about] the issues of race in both monitored and unmonitored teen chat rooms, suggesting ‘net generation’ (a generation of youth ranging from toddlers to mid-20s, reared by interactive media and use internet for everyday activities such as shopping, learning and communicating (Tapscott, 1998)) appear to be more inclusive [of other race].” (Burkhalter, 1999; Nakamura, 2002; Kang, 2000; Glaser et al., 2002) That is not to say racial attitudes do not exist in anonymous chat rooms, it is still presented, especially a higher use in the unmonitored online chats. Nevertheless, this is “a time where diversity is valued and [discussion of race] as a common topic, can help reduce prejudice.” (Burnette, 1997)

 

 

Words Cited:

B. Tynes et al. Adolescence, race, and ethnicity on the Internet: A comparison of discourse in monitored vs. unmonitored chat rooms,

Applied Developmental Psychology 25 (2004) pg 667-684. 

 

 

ethnicity and internet

 


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